Archive for July, 2008

Functional D: Is Transitive Const Fundamental?

July 30th, 2008 14 comments

As I’ve mentioned before, a pure functional subset is forming in the D Programming Language. According to the creators of D, transitive const is a key feature to make this work.

The future of programming will be multicore, multithreaded. Languages that make it easy to program them will supplant languages that don’t. Transitive const is key to bringing D into this paradigm. […] C++ cannot be retrofitted to supporting multiprogramming in a manner that makes it accessible. D isn’t there yet, but it will be, and transitive const will be absolutely fundamental to making it work.

[Quote from the D website]

What is transitive const?

Just a quick explanation for those of us who doesn’t have academic terms in close memory. Transitivity is a property of some binary relations, for example equality:

if A = B and B = C, then A = C

Applied to the concept of const it means, simply put, that anything reachable from a const type is also a const. So, for a declaration const int **p, p is const, as well as *p and **p.
The same is true in the case of composite types:

class A {
  int f;

  void set_f(int a_value) {
    f = a_value;

const A a = new A();
a = new A(); // error
a.a = 2; // error
a.set_a(2); // error

All three reassignments above result in compiler errors due to the fact that a is const, and anything reachable from it is also const.

Why does it matter?

So, in what way is transitive const fundamental to concurrent programming? Well, it isn’t. What Walter Bright and his companions refer to is the fact that pure functional programming is thread-safe by design. That is, in a pure functional language the result of a function is solely dependent on its arguments. Thus, in a code like this:

val = some_func( a(), b(), c() );

functions a(), b() and c() can be safely executed concurrently in a multi-core architecture; Nothing a(), b() or c() does can affect each others results. This is not the case for imperative languages that builds on the notion of mutable and global state. With mutable state comes hidden side-effects (a(), b() or c() could change common data and cause raise conditions) that complicates multi-thread programming so much.

What the people behind D tries to do is to create a pure functional subset within the language. I like to refer to it as Functional D. Such a subset would allow us to write code that is thread-safe by default, all you have to do is to write Functional D code. The compiler would then be able to chisel out the functional code and fully utilize the advantages of functional programming.

Immutable data and pure functions are fundamental

To make this work we need a way to make data immutable and a way to shut down access to the global state. In D you use the invariant keyword to create immutable data. The pure keyword is used to mark functions that may only take invariant arguments, no access to the global state, and that may only invoke other pure functions. (As of this writing, the semantics of the pure keyword is not yet implemented).

int g = 0;

pure int pure_func(invariant int a) {
  a = 0; // error, a is invariant
  g = 1; // error, can't write to global g
  writefln(a); // error, writefln is not pure
  return g + a; // error, can't read global g

How does transitive const fit into all of this? To use the intuitive definitions from Andrei Alexandrescu’s slides on the functional subset of D:

  • const(T) x: I can’t modify x or anything reachable from it
  • invariant(T) x: Nobody can modify x or anything reachable from it

Const is not strong enough to be used in the functional subset (which depends on truly immutable data), but it has one application that could be important. From Walter Bright at the D newsgroup:

Const allows you to reuse code that works on invariants to work with
mutables, too.

How usable is const to the functional subset?

Const can be used to write code that works with data from both the imperative (mutable) and the functional (immutable) subsets. For example, the print function below.

void print(const int a) {

const int a = 1;
print(a); // ok

invariant int b = 2;
print(b); // ok

print(3); // ok

The reason this works is that invariants and immutable data is implicitly converted to const when necessary. One can question how useful this would be in practice though, the print function above would not be invokable from the functional subset (which would require it to be pure).

My conclusion is that although it may very well be important, transitive const is not “absolutely fundamental to making it work.” Transitive invariant, on the other hand, is.


Hacker or Developer?

July 29th, 2008 3 comments

Jay Fields has a post up today where he makes a distinction between Developers and Hackers.

Time after time I see requirements gathered and presented in a way that is totally disconnected from the business problem that’s being addressed. There are two ways to handle the situation.

  1. Write the best code you can.
  2. Talk to the business.

Hackers generally go for the first choice, which doesn’t guarantee failure. In fact, a good hacker can still deliver code quickly enough that the business will be happy. Often, he gets it right on the 2nd or 3rd try.

But, a developer can deliver what the business is looking for the first time. A(n often) quick conversation with the business ensures that the developer knows what to work on and how it will benefit the business. This dialog often leads to a superior solution implementation where the business gets what it wants and the developer is able to do it in the most efficient way (e.g. I don’t need a beautiful website, I need a command line application).

It’s essentially the same distinction I tried to make a while ago, although I used the term Programmer instead of Hacker. Maybe if I’d used the term Hacker as well, I might have avoided some of the heat I took for those definitions 🙂

Interestingly Jay too suggests — although he doesn’t say it outright — a definition where human interaction and taking the Customer’s view is what distinguishes a developer, rather than coding skills.



July 21st, 2008 No comments

I’m back from my summer vacation. I try to take a long holiday every year and stay away from computers, be with my family, visit interesting places and, of course, read books. Summer is the time of year when I take my reading habits away from the toilet out to the hammock. Time is still scarce but this year I managed to finish five books, mostly in a horizontal position.

As you may know I keep personal logs for almost everything, including notes on the books I’ve read. Now I decided to take that habit and make it public, something I’ve been meaning to do for a very long time. For that reason I’ve set up a new sub domain,, where I’ll publish such notes. It won’t be fully fledged reviews, but short posts that primarily reflects how I found the book (or the movie, or whatever.)

Here are four of the books I read during my holiday:

If you’re interested in following what books I read (and what movies I watch,) subscribe to my reviews feed.


Categories: books, learning, reading, review Tags:

ModRewrite Problems

July 5th, 2008 No comments

As you may or may not have discovered I have been on a long vacation, and intentionally stayed far away from any computer. Unfortunately my blog seems to have broken while I have been gone, particularely the single post pages.

Somehow the ModRewrite rules got screwed up, no idea how. Anyway, it has been taken care of now and the site should be up and running as usual. Many thank’s to Robert Ames who pointed it out for me.

Now, back to vacationing (I still have a week left).


Categories: blogging, off-topic Tags: